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CONTENTS
Volume 5, Number 4, August 2017
 

Abstract
The concrete industry of developing countries like India consumes majority of natural resources. The increase in population has necessitated the construction of more and more structures. Further many structures have completed their life span or have undergone damages thus warranting the demolition of these structures. India produces approximately 23.75 million tons of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) annually. The natural resources are depleting at a higher rate with the increasing demand of concrete industry. This difficulty can be reduced with the use of RCA in land fill and concrete manufacturing. Use of RCA can provide cost savings and better energy utilization. This paper presents mechanical behavior of concrete comprising successively recycled concrete aggregate. Mechanical properties of recycled concrete get affected with number of recycling. In mix design successive recycled concrete aggregate (SRCA) was used in place of natural aggregates (NA) with 100% replacement. The test results of the compressive, flexural strength and pulse velocity were obtained for 14 and 28 days of curing age which showed significant improvement in results.

Key Words
recycled concrete aggregate; waste; strength; workability

Address
Surender K. Verma: Department of Civil Engineering, PEC University Technology, Chandigarh 160-012, India
Deepankar K. Ashish: Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Technology, Maharaja Agrasen University, Baddi 174-103, India

Abstract
Geopolymer is a sustainable concrete, replaces traditional cement concrete using alternative sustainable construction materials as binders and alkaline solution as alkaline activator. This paper presents the strength characteristics of geopolymer concrete (GPC) developed with fly ash and GGBS as binders, combined Sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) solution as alkaline activators. The parameters considered in this research work are proportions of fly ash and GGBS (70-30 and 50-50), curing conditions (Outdoor curing and oven curing at 600oC for 24 hours), two grades of concrete (GPC20 and GPC50).The mechanical properties such as compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength along with durability characteristics were determined. For studying the durability characteristics of geopolymer concrete 5% H2SO4 solutions was used and the specimens were immersed up to an exposure period of 56 days. The main parameters considered in this study were Acid Mass Loss Factor (AMLF), Acid Strength Loss Factor (ASLF) and products of degradation. The results conclude that GPC with sufficient strength can be developed even under Outdoor curing using fly ash and GGBS combination i.e., without the need for any heat curing.

Key Words
recycled concrete aggregate; waste; strength; workability

Address
Mallikarjuna Rao Goriparthi and Gunneswara Rao T.D.: Department of Civil Engineering, NIT Warangal, Telangana India

Abstract
In this study a polymer concrete, made up of natural aggregates and an orthophthalic polyester binder, reinforced with natural Alfa fibers has been studied. The results of flexural testing of unreinforced polymer concrete with different rates of charges (marble) showed that the concrete with 20% of marble is stronger and more rigid compared to other grades. Hence, a rate of 20% of marble powder is selected as the optimal value in the development of polymer concrete reinforced Alfa fibers. The fracture results of reinforced polymer concrete with 1 and 2 wt% of chopped untreated or treated Alfa fibers showed that treated Alfa (5% NaOH) fiber reinforced polymer concrete has higher fracture properties than other composites. We believe that this type of concrete provides a very promising alternative for the building industry seeking to achieve the objectives of sustainable development.

Key Words
polymer concrete; quartz; waste marble; natural fibers; fracture

Address
Rokbi Mansour: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of M

Abstract
This paper describes the experimental investigation carried out to develop geopolymer concrete using rice husk ash (RHA) along with alccofine. The study reports the fresh and hardened properties of the geopolymer concrete (GPC) activated using alkaline solution. GPC were prepared using different RHA content (350, 375 and 400 kg/m3), the molarity of the NaOH (8, 12 and 16M). The specimens were cured at 27oC and 90oC. GPC was activated using NaOH, Na2SiO3, and alccofine. Prepared GPC samples were tested for compressive and splitting tensile strengths after 3, 7 and 28 days. RHA was suitable to produce geopolymer concrete. Results indicate that behavior of GPC prepared with RHA is similar to fly ash based GPC. Workability and strength can be improved by incorporating the alccofine. Further, alccofine and heat curing improve the early age properties of the GPC. Heat curing is responsible for the initial polymerization of GPC which leads to high workability and improved mechanical properties of the GPC. High strength can be achieved by using the high concentration alkaline solution in terms of molarity and at elevated heat curing. Further, RHA based geopolymer concrete has tremendous potential as a substitute for ordinary concrete.

Key Words
high silica rice husk ash; geopolymer concrete; alccofine; workability; strength; alkaline solution

Address
Parveen and Dhirendra Singhal: Department of Civil Engineering, DCRUST, Murthal-131039, Sonipat, Haryana, India
Bharat Bhushan Jindal:
1) Department of Civil Engineering, M.M. University, Sadopur, Ambala, India
2) IK Gujral Punjab Technical University, Kapurthala, Punjab, India

Abstract
This paper presents a study of the properties and behavior of self-compacting concretes (SCC) in the hot climate. The effect of curing environment and the initial water curing period on the properties and behavior of SCC such as compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and sorptivity of the SCC specimens were investigated. Three Water/Binder (W/B) ratios (0.32, 0.38 and 0.44) have been used to obtain three ranges of compressive strength. Five curing methods have been applied on the SCC by varying the duration and the conservation condition of SCC. The results obtained on the compressive strength show that the period of initial water curing of seven days followed by maturation in the hot climate is better in comparison with the four other curing methods. The coefficient of sorptivity is influenced by W/B ratio and the curing methods. It is also shown that the sorptivity coefficient of SCC specimens is very sensitive to the curing condition. The SCC specimens cured in water present a low coefficient of sorptivity regardless of the ratio W/B. Furthermore, the results show that there is a good correlation between ultrasonic pulse velocity and the compressive strength.

Key Words
self-compacting concretes; initial curing period; compressive strength; sorptivity; ultrasonic pulse velocity

Address
M. Salhi:
1) Department of Civil Engineering, University of Relizane, Bourmadia, Algeria
2) Geomaterials Laboratory, Hassiba Benbouali University of Chlef, P.O. Box 151, Chlef 02000, Algeria
3) Laboratory of Civil Engineering, University of Reims Champagne Ardennes, Reims, France
M. Ghrici: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Relizane, Bourmadia, Algeria
A. Li: Laboratory of Civil Engineering, University of Reims Champagne Ardennes, Reims, France
T. Bilir: Department of Civil Engineering, Bülent Ecevit University, 67100, İncivez,Zonguldak, Turkey

Abstract
This study proposes a geopolymer concrete (GPC) mix design method for low calcium (class F) fly ash based incorporating alccofine with the focus on achieving the required compressive strength and workability at heat and ambient curing. Key factors identified and nine mixes with varied fly ash content (350, 375 and 400 kg/m3) and different molarity (8, 12 and 16M) of NaOH solutions were prepared. The cubes prepared were cured at different temperatures (27oC, 60oC and 90oC) and tested for its compressive strength after 3, 7 and 28 days of curing. Fly ash content has been considered as the direct measure of workability and strength. The suggested mix design approach has been verified with the help of the example and targets well the requirements of fresh and hardened concrete.

Key Words
geopolymer concrete; low calcium fly ash; alccofine; mix design; AF-GPC graphs; alkaline activator liquid

Address
Parveen and Dhirendra Singhal: Department of Civil Engineering, DCRUST, Murthal, 131039, Sonipat, Haryana, India

Abstract
Cement acts as the most important component of concrete as it binds and holds the concrete together. But it is one of the major CO2 emitters all over the world, during manufacturing (900 kg of CO2 per 1000 kg). Some of the modern construction methods aim at reducing the amount of usage of cement and came out with numerous solutions for replacement of the same. One such supplement in current trend is the Steel dust or the Electric Arc Furnace Dust (EAFD), which is a waste product from the electric arc furnace when the scrap metal is melted. When the concrete containing steel dust is exposed to atmosphere, the environmental oxygen and moisture play role to form rust and ultimately the member becomes harder. As Cement is the binder of conventional concrete, only certain percentage of the same could be replaced by the new material, steel dust. Tests were conducted for the 28 days cube strength of M45 grade (suitable for prestressing) concrete which has 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% steel dust instead cement. From the test, the optimum percentage replacement of steel dust was obtained, for which the beams and overhead poles were cast, prestressed and tested for the failure load and deflections. A conventional concrete beam and overhead pole were also cast, prestressed and tested to compare the results with those of the beam and pole that contained steel dust. The load vs. deflection plot and other results from the test is also discussed.

Key Words
concrete; pre tesntioend prestressed concrete; overhead pole and steel dust

Address
Sujitha Magdalene P and Harishankar S: School of Civil Engineering, SASTRA University, Thirumalaisamudram, Thanjavur, 613 401, India

Abstract
Evaluating seismic performance of urban structures for future earthquakes is one of the key prerequisites of rehabilitation programs. Irregular structures, as a specific case, are more susceptible to sustain earthquake damage than regular structures. The study here is to identify damage states of vertically irregular structures using the well-recognized Park-Ang damage index. For doing this, a regular 3-story reinforced concrete (RC) structure is first designed based on ACI-318 code, and a peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 0.3 g. Some known vertical irregularities such as setback, short column and soft story are then applied to the regular structure. All the four structures are subjected to seven different earthquakes accelerations and different amplitudes which are then analyzed using nonlinear dynamic procedure. The damage indices of the structures are then accounted for using the pointed out damage index. The results show that the structure with soft story irregularity sustains more damage in all the earthquake records than the other structures. The least damage belongs the regular structure showing that different earthquake with different accelerations and amplitudes have no significant effect on the regular structures.

Key Words
damage index; nonlinear dynamic analysis; seismic vulnerability; setback; short column; soft story

Address
Fahimeh Shojaei: Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
Behrouz Behnam: School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran


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